There are early legends of human flight such as the story of Icarus in Greek myth and Jamshid
in Persian myth, and later, somewhat more credible claims of
short-distance human flights appear, such as the flying automaton of Archytas of Tarentum (428–347 BC), the winged flights of Abbas Ibn Firnas (810–887), Eilmer of Malmesbury (11th century), and the hot-air Passarola of Bartholomeu Lourenço de Gusmão (1685–1724).
Lighter than air
The modern age of aviation began with the first untethered human lighter-than-air flight on November 21, 1783, of a hot air balloon designed by the Montgolfier brothers.
The practicality of balloons was limited because they could only travel
downwind. It was immediately recognized that a steerable, or dirigible, balloon was required. Jean-Pierre Blanchard flew the first human-powered dirigible in 1784 and crossed the English Channel in one in 1785.
The most successful Zeppelin was the Graf Zeppelin.
It flew over one million miles, including an around-the-world flight in
August 1929. However, the dominance of the Zeppelins over the airplanes
of that period, which had a range of only a few hundred miles, was
diminishing as airplane design advanced. The “Golden Age” of the
airships ended on May 6, 1937 when the Hindenburg
caught fire, killing 36 people. The cause of the Hindenburg accident
was initially blamed on the use of hydrogen instead of helium as the
lift gas. An internal investigation by the manufacturer revealed the
coating used to protect the covering material over the frame was highly
flammable and allowed static electricity to build up in the airship.
Changes to the coating formulation reduced the risk of further
Hindenburg type accidents. Although there have been periodic initiatives
to revive their use, airships have seen only niche application since
Heavier than air
In 1799 Sir George Cayley
set forth the concept of the modern airplane as a fixed-wing flying
machine with separate systems for lift, propulsion, and control. Early dirigible developments included machine-powered propulsion (Henri Giffard, 1852), rigid frames (David Schwarz, 1896) and improved speed and maneuverability (Alberto Santos-Dumont, 1901)
There are many competing claims for the earliest powered, heavier-than-air flight. The first recorded powered flight was carried out by Clément Ader
on October 9, 1890 when he reportedly made the first manned, powered,
heavier-than-air flight of a significant distance (50 m (160 ft)) but
insignificant altitude from level ground in his bat-winged, fully
self-propelled fixed-wing aircraft, the Ader Éole. Seven years later, on 14 October 1897, Ader’s Avion III was tested without success in front of two officials from the French
War ministry. The report on the trials was not publicized until 1910,
as they had been a military secret. In November 1906 Ader claimed to
have made a successful flight on 14 October 1897, achieving an
“uninterrupted flight” of around 300 metres (980 feet) on. Although
widely believed at the time, these claims were later discredited.
However, the most widely accepted date is December 17, 1903 by the Wright brothers.
The Wright brothers were the first to fly in a powered and controlled
aircraft. Previous flights were gliders (control but no power) or free
flight (power but no control), but the Wright brothers combined both,
setting the new standard in aviation records. Following this, the
widespread adoption of ailerons rather than wing warping made aircraft much easier to control, and only a decade later, at the start of World War I,
heavier-than-air powered aircraft had become practical for
reconnaissance, artillery spotting, and even attacks against ground
Aircraft began to transport people and cargo as designs grew larger
and more reliable. The Wright brothers took aloft the first passenger,
Charles Furnas, one of their mechanics, on May 14, 1908.
During the 1920s and 1930s great progress was made in the field of aviation, including the first transatlantic flight of Alcock and Brown in 1919, Charles Lindbergh‘s solo transatlantic flight in 1927, and Charles Kingsford Smith‘s transpacific flight the following year. One of the most successful designs of this period was the Douglas DC-3, which became the first airliner to be profitable carrying passengers exclusively, starting the modern era of passenger airline service. By the beginning of World War II,
many towns and cities had built airports, and there were numerous
qualified pilots available. The war brought many innovations to
aviation, including the first jet aircraft and the first liquid-fueled rockets.
After World War II, especially in North America, there was a boom in general aviation,
both private and commercial, as thousands of pilots were released from
military service and many inexpensive war-surplus transport and training
aircraft became available. Manufacturers such as Cessna, Piper, and Beechcraft expanded production to provide light aircraft for the new middle-class market.
By the 1950s, the development of civil jets grew, beginning with the de Havilland Comet, though the first widely used passenger jet was the Boeing 707, because it was much more economical than other aircraft at that time. At the same time, turboprop
propulsion began to appear for smaller commuter planes, making it
possible to serve small-volume routes in a much wider range of weather
Since the 1960s composite material airframes and quieter, more efficient engines have become available, and Concorde provided supersonic passenger service
for more than two decades, but the most important lasting innovations
have taken place in instrumentation and control. The arrival of solid-state electronics, the Global Positioning System, satellite communications, and increasingly small and powerful computers and LED displays, have dramatically changed the cockpits of airliners
and, increasingly, of smaller aircraft as well. Pilots can navigate
much more accurately and view terrain, obstructions, and other nearby
aircraft on a map or through synthetic vision, even at night or in low visibility.
On June 21, 2004, SpaceShipOne became the first privately funded aircraft to make a spaceflight,
opening the possibility of an aviation market capable of leaving the
Earth’s atmosphere. Meanwhile, flying prototypes of aircraft powered by
alternative fuels, such as ethanol, electricity, and even solar energy, are becoming more common.
Operations of aircraft
There are five major manufacturers of civil transport aircraft (in alphabetical order):
- Airbus, based in Europe
- Boeing, based in the United States
- Bombardier, based in Canada
- Embraer, based in Brazil
- United Aircraft Corporation, based in Russia
Boeing, Airbus, Ilyushin and Tupolev concentrate on wide-body and narrow-body jet airliners, while Bombardier, Embraer and Sukhoi concentrate on regional airliners.
Large networks of specialized parts suppliers from around the world
support these manufacturers, who sometimes provide only the initial
design and final assembly in their own plants. The Chinese ACAC consortium will also soon enter the civil transport market with its Comac ARJ21 regional jet.
Until the 1970s, most major airlines were flag carriers, sponsored by their governments and heavily protected from competition. Since then, open skies
agreements have resulted in increased competition and choice for
consumers, coupled with falling prices for airlines. The combination of
high fuel prices, low fares, high salaries, and crises such as the September 11, 2001 attacks and the SARS epidemic have driven many older airlines to government-bailouts, bankruptcy or mergers. At the same time, low-cost carriers such as Ryanair, Southwest and Westjet have flourished.
General aviation includes all non-scheduled civil flying, both private and commercial. General aviation may include business flights, air charter, private aviation, flight training, ballooning, parachuting, gliding, hang gliding, aerial photography, foot-launched powered hang gliders, air ambulance, crop dusting, charter flights, traffic reporting, police air patrols and forest fire fighting.
Each country regulates aviation differently, but general aviation
usually falls under different regulations depending on whether it is
private or commercial and on the type of equipment involved.
Many small aircraft manufacturers serve the general aviation market, with a focus on private aviation and flight training.
The most important recent developments for small aircraft (which form
the bulk of the GA fleet) have been the introduction of advanced avionics (including GPS) that were formerly found only in large airliners, and the introduction of composite materials to make small aircraft lighter and faster. Ultralight and homebuilt aircraft
have also become increasingly popular for recreational use, since in
most countries that allow private aviation, they are much less expensive
and less heavily regulated than certified aircraft.
The largest aircraft to be built, to date, is the Antonov An-225.
This aircraft comes from the Ukraine, and it was built back in the
1980s. This aircraft includes 6 engines, mounted on the wing. Its
wingspan is 88 metres (289 feet) and it is 84 metres (276 feet) long.
This aircraft holds the world payload record, after it transported
428,834 pounds worth of goods. Weighing in at 1.4 million pounds, it is
also the heaviest aircraft to be built.
Simple balloons were used as surveillance aircraft as early as the 18th century. Over the years, military aircraft
have been built to meet ever increasing capability requirements.
Manufacturers of military aircraft compete for contracts to supply their
government’s arsenal. Aircraft are selected based on factors like cost,
performance, and the speed of production.
Types of military aviation
- Fighter aircraft‘s primary function is to destroy other aircraft. (e.g. Sopwith Camel, A6M Zero, F-15, MiG-29, Su-27, and F-22).
- Ground attack aircraft are used against tactical earth-bound targets. (e.g. Junkers Stuka, A-10, Il-2, J-22 Orao, AH-64 and Su-25).
- Bombers are generally used against more strategic targets, such as factories and oil fields. (e.g. Zeppelin, Tu-95, Mirage IV, and B-52).
- Transport aircraft are used to transport hardware and personnel. (e.g. C-17 Globemaster III, C-130 Hercules and Mil Mi-26).
- Surveillance and reconnaissance aircraft obtain information about enemy forces. (e.g. Rumpler Taube, Mosquito, U-2, OH-58 and MiG-25R).
- Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs)
are used primarily as reconnaissance fixed-wing aircraft, though many
also carry payloads. Cargo aircraft are in development. (e.g. RQ-7B Shadow, MQ-8 Fire Scout, and MQ-1C Gray Eagle).
- Missiles deliver warheads, normally explosives, but also things like leaflets.
|This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. (November 2013)|
Aviation accidents and incidents
An aviation accident is defined by the Convention on International Civil Aviation
Annex 13 as an occurrence associated with the operation of an aircraft
which takes place between the time any person boards the aircraft with
the intention of flight
until such time as all such persons have disembarked, in which a person
is fatally or seriously injured, the aircraft sustains damage or
structural failure or the aircraft is missing or is completely
The first fatal aviation accident occurred in a Wright Model A aircraft at Fort Myer, Virginia, USA, on September 17, 1908, resulting in injury to the pilot, Orville Wright, and death of the passenger, Signal Corps Lieutenant Thomas Selfridge.
An aviation incident is defined as an occurrence, other than
an accident, associated with the operation of an aircraft that affects
or could affect the safety of operations.
An accident in which the damage to the aircraft is such that it must
be written off, or in which the plane is destroyed, is called a hull loss accident.
Air traffic control
Air traffic control (ATC) involves communication with aircraft to
help maintain separation — that is, they ensure that aircraft are
sufficiently far enough apart horizontally or vertically for no risk of
collision. Controllers may co-ordinate position reports provided by
pilots, or in high traffic areas (such as the United States) they may use radar to see aircraft positions.
There are generally four different types of ATC:
- center controllers, who control aircraft en route between airports
- control towers (including tower, ground control, clearance delivery,
and other services), which control aircraft within a small distance
(typically 10–15 km horizontal, and 1,000 m vertical) of an airport.
- oceanic controllers, who control aircraft over international waters between continents, generally without radar service.
- terminal controllers, who control aircraft in a wider area (typically 50–80 km) around busy airports.
ATC is especially important for aircraft flying under instrument flight rules
(IFR), where they may be in weather conditions that do not allow the
pilots to see other aircraft. However, in very high-traffic areas,
especially near major airports, aircraft flying under visual flight rules (VFR) are also required to follow instructions from ATC.
In addition to separation from other aircraft, ATC may provide
weather advisories, terrain separation, navigation assistance, and other
services to pilots, depending on their workload.
ATC do not control all flights. The majority of VFR flights in North
America are not required to talk to ATC (unless they are passing through
a busy terminal area or using a major airport), and in many areas, such
as northern Canada and low altitude in northern Scotland, Air traffic control services are not available even for IFR flights at lower altitudes.
Like all activities involving combustion, operating powered aircraft (from airliners to hot air balloons) release soot and other pollutants into the atmosphere. Greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide (CO2) are also produced. In addition, there are environmental impacts specific to aviation:
- Aircraft operating at high altitudes near the tropopause (mainly large jet airliners) emit aerosols and leave contrails, both of which can increase cirrus cloud formation — cloud cover may have increased by up to 0.2% since the birth of aviation.
- Aircraft operating at high altitudes near the tropopause can also
release chemicals that interact with greenhouse gases at those
altitudes, particularly nitrogen compounds, which interact with ozone, increasing ozone concentrations.
- Most light piston aircraft burn avgas, which contains tetraethyllead (TEL). Some lower-compression piston engines can operate on unleaded mogas, and turbine engines and diesel engines — neither of which requires lead — are appearing on some newer light aircraft.