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history of the Philippines is believed to have begun with the arrival
of the first humans using rafts or primitive boats (balangay
boats)[citation needed] at least 67,000 years ago as the 2007 discovery
of Callao Man suggested.[1] Negrito tribes first inhabited the isles.
Groups of Austronesians later migrated to the islands. Eventually
various groups developed, separated into hunter-gatherer tribes, warrior
societies, petty plutocracies and maritime-oriented harbor
principalities which eventually grew into kingdoms, rajahnates,
kedatuans, huangdoms and sultanates. These small nations were either
greatly influenced by Hindu religions, literature and philosophy from
India,[2] Islam from Arabia or were Sinified tributary states allied to
China. The nations included the Indianized Rajahnates of Butuan and
Cebu, the dynasty of Tondo, the august kingdoms of Maysapan and Maynila,
the Kedatuan of Madja-as, the sinified Huangdom of Ma-i, the Huangdom
of Pangasinan as well as the Muslim Sultanates of Sulu, Lanao and
Maguindanao. These small maritime states flourished from the 1st
millennium.[3][4] These kingdoms traded with what are now called China,
India, Japan, Thailand, Vietnam, and Indonesia.[5] The remainder of the
settlements were independent barangays allied with one of the larger
states. The first recorded visit by Europeans is the arrival of
Ferdinand Magellan. He sighted Samar Island on March 16, 1521 and landed
the next day on Homonhon Island, now part of Guiuan, Eastern Samar.[6]
Spanish colonization began with the arrival of Miguel López de Legazpi’s
expedition on February 13, 1565 from Mexico. He established the first
permanent settlement in Cebu.[7] Much of the archipelago came under
Spanish rule, creating the first unified political structure known as
the Philippines. Spanish colonial rule saw the introduction of
Christianity, the code of law and the oldest modern university in Asia.
The Philippines was ruled under the Mexico-based Viceroyalty of New
Spain until the advent of Mexican independence. After which, the colony
was directly governed by Spain. Spanish rule ended in 1898 with Spain’s
defeat in the Spanish–American War. The Philippines then became a colony
of the United States. American rule was not uncontested. The Philippine
Revolution had begun in August 1896 against Spain, and after the defeat
of Spain in the Battle of Manila Bay began again in earnest,
culminating in the Philippine Declaration of Independence and the
establishment of the First Philippine Republic. The Philippine–American
War ensued, with extensive damage and death, and ultimately resulting in
the defeat of the Philippine Republic.[8][9][10][11] The United States
established the Insular Government to rule the Philippines.[12] In 1907,
the elected Philippine Assembly was convened as the lower house of a
bicameral legislature and in 1916 the U.S. Federal Government formally
promised independence in the Jones Act.[12] The Philippine Commonwealth
was established in 1935, as a 10-year interim step prior to full
independence.[13] Before independence, World War II began and Japan
occupied the Philippines.[14] After the end of the war, the Treaty of
Manila established an independent Philippine Republic.[15] In 1972,
Philippine President Ferdinand Marcos imposed martial law. Following the
assassination of the Ninoy Aquino, Marcos held snap elections in 1986
and subsequently fled the country during the People Power Revolution
which installed Cory Aquino as president and reestablished democracy. In
the 21st Century, the Philippines is the 12th most populous country of
the world, part of ASEAN, a key ally of the United States, with an
economy dominated by fishing and agriculture with a growing business
process outsourcing (BPO) industry and nearly 10% of the population
abroad as overseas Filipino workers.