Historical aspect and development of tourism in Paris



This essay will firstly analyse the historical aspect and development
of tourism in Paris. Secondly it will also identify the positive and
negative aspects of socio-economic, cultural and environmental impacts.
Finally it will explain an academic model related to Paris. In
particular, it is worthwhile to know exactly the meaning of the terms
tourism, recreation and leisure.  Recently, The World Travel and Tourism
Council had made an approximate judgement that, the tourism has become
the world largest activity and industry within the business market. But
an understanding of tourist waves is important for dealing with the
environmental and the social effects of tourism and also to secure the
lucrative viability of the tourism industry and to plan for new

In addition the tourism can be defined as an entire place of people,
businesses, and places with a purpose, to self associate in a common
way, to discover a travel experience in a multidimensional activity.
 Economically it is vital to describe the tourism as a demand or a
supply, which can be stated precisely in terms of the motivations or
other typical moral strength of travellers. From some    conceptual
argument, it can be seen as an activity for persons moving from an area
to another. For instance, the tourism can have both direct and indirect
effect and displacement effect, but in most of case, it is locally and
economically beneficial Cooper et al (1998).

To begin with, in the light of recent national media attention
regarding tourism, it seems that a touristic region have to be more
attractive to persuade visitors in many of its different aspects, such
as historical, regional image and many thing to discover. Historically,
Paris has a long standing past of more than two and halves millennium,
during which it grew from small people to multicultural inhabitant, and
also the history of Paris was most dominated and divided into dynasties
and kings such as, the Capetians, the Valois, the Bourbon who had built
many castle and monumental status. Geographically, Paris is the capital
city of France and one of the famous cities in the world.

This city has gone past through so many bad moment and the better
days. Firstly, the imperial period which was dislike because of its
political instability and corruption. Secondly, the French revolution
event which took place in 1789, however, its universal aspiration will
made France the country of human right. Thirdly, the bloody wars which
the City welcomed as an opportunity to obtain revenge for the battle
lost in 1870 and left the city brutally damaged. Finally, the better
days came when François Mitterrand was elected as president of France in
1981 which brought so many changes to the city’s appearance and the
political aspect and also made Paris to attract many artiste and
intellectual from all over the world.

When considering Butler’s Tourist Area Life-Cycle Model, which
particularly talk about the tourism Exploration, Development, Decline,
Rejuvenation, it seemed that the tourism in Paris had started in about
1848, when the rail network came into effect, the city became one of the
most visited destinations and the public were most attracted by its
museums and monuments, especially the Eiffel tower which was built later
in 1889 and also since its construction it has been visited by more
than 200 million peoples, then come the  Basilique du sacré Coeur and
Notre Dame de Paris, with more than 12 millions visitor a year and also
the Disneyland Paris has been visited by more than 14millions visitors
in 2007 followed by the Louvre museum which is the famous and the
largest and also it has so many art displays, moreover many hotels and
restaurants in Paris depend on the tourism. Pioch (2002)

Unfortunately, due to the global economic crisis, the tourism in
Paris had decreased significantly during 2008 and also in 2009 the
demand for visitor in Paris had slowed down due to the Swine flu
outbreak, miraculously that demand bounced back at the end of 2009 as
France came out of recession, but that recovery was still showing some
negative effects but now things have come back to normal.

Nowadays, Paris is still one of the most visited cities on earth,
because of its beautiful architecture, romantic cafes, spectacular
monument, the old churches, the art galleries. Its transport system and
communication are so sophisticated to facilitate people to get place
such as the Charles de Gaulle airport and the Euro-Disneyland as well as
a number of sports events that attracted worldwide TV coverage. In
addition the majority of People, who came to visit Paris, are from
Germany, Belgium, Netherlands and most British tourist travel by car and
through channel tunnel.

It is clear that, the tourism always plays a vital role within the
economic aspect of the world and a considerable activity of global value
and also a high influential position. For many years, Paris can be
classified in the top tourist destination, particularly as regards the
hotel and catering sectors. Briefly, among the sectors which contribute
to Paris success in tourism are :  Its country is the largest in western
Europe, it is also unique in its altitudinal and latitudinal position,
its culture has been largely imitated, its French language is most
spoken worldwide, France is among the world’s leading economic powers
due to is technological advance. Furthermore, a touristic destination
must be attractive and give reassurance to the tourist as their security
and safety will make the location more desirable to the comers. Jenks

Apparently, Paris is one of the beautiful and a vibrant city in
Western Europe, with an estimated population of more than 2 million, its
development history, started with a major industrial change in methods
creation of railway network, which has brought an unknown flow of many
people to the capital in the early 1840. Even though, It seems nearly
hard not to see tourist studies as an enthusiastic and an interesting
course these days, as It has grown very quickly. Indeed, the core reason
is that the tourism studies, has been dramatically dominated by a
general plan of action and the industry sponsored by priorities and
perspectives, made by people whose the disciplinary provenance do not
contain the necessary tools to examine and scrutinise a complicated
cultural and social process which is spread out.

Despite the lack of resource in the tourism studies, there is a large
sort of conceptual and concerning approaches to tourism which should be
rigorously monitored as it is no longer a typical consumer product or a
style of consumption. However, from its beginnings the tourism had
broken relatively away from its minor and short time ritual of actual
national life to be a significant model. Nowadays the tourism has become
such a relevant aspect to social life worldwide to which its recent
agenda have to reflect this rising significance. Moreover, people have
been able to experience new aspects of identities, their familiarisation
with nature and their personal relations and also to use the relevant
cultural competence of their dream and mind to travel. Boniface et al

Apparently the tourism industry has to be made as flexible as
possible, as suggested by Miossec’s Model of tourism Development, which
looks more structural and practicable with any kind of tourist in the
sense of actual evolution and the development of the destination. In
addition the beneficial impact of it model can be classified in
particularly as follow: transport, saturation, and tourist’s behaviour. 
It is wise to understand why the tourism is among the fastest
developing part in the global market, as any kind of industrial
development will always bring so many positive and negative impacts in
which it takes place. However, as longer as the tourists tend to visit a
place to consume the supply, inevitably the tourism Industry activity  
has   to be associated with positive effect such as the local economic
activities boost. Firstly, there will be a high demand on transport and
Paris has the most sophisticated transport in the world, which serves
its local residents which means, in Paris the transport has much
developed these days than in the past.

Furthermore Paris has improved its transport network, the road are
well build to facilitate the traffic and many more, some network train
serve Paris and Charles de Gaulle airport and also the Disneyland park.
The tourist can use taxis, buses, metro to reach their final destination
and to discover many places. Secondly, hotels and restaurants may
employ extra new staffs to satisfy their customer needs, all local shops
will take advantage, leisure and cinemas will have the frequentation of
their customer raised, exchange office will also benefit from the
foreign currency, which means, enhances taxation and licence revenues
will generate employment for local people.

In addition, each year the tourist in Paris bring 8.5 billion Euro to
the economy at same time the local council earn more or less 30 million
Euro, from  the tourist tax. For instance, the tourism is always much
more helpful to the economic growth of Paris, however it is necessary to
take into account the beneficial impact occasioned by direct productive
activity. In meantime, the economic impacts linked to tourism
development, can sometime be direct or indirect and also the tourism
activity which require a massive quantity of the production of supply
from different range of industries, including those who are not directly
supplying tourist service and goods. Moreover, the tourism in Paris has
also its negative aspects; such as the saturation impact which will
affect the environment and the nature. Pearce (1995)

Dramatically there will be an overgrowing population and a huge
pressure on urban life, which create the desire to change or to move in
to a different area, a high level of the religious beliefs, sudden
change in behavioural patterns and high level of crime. Although, the
environmental stress created from the tourist activities, can always be
considered in terms of their negative effects by local resident. In
spite of this issue, the impact may be direct or intern which can be
forcibly caused by the political involvement of some countries in war
and it can also be a terrible nightmare with a catastrophic concern or
even a serious threat to some state, especially the terrorism, which has
became now an imminent threat worldwide; constitute a serious menace
not only to the tourist but also to the travel companies. Youell (1998)

The real scope of environmental impacts must not be underestimated,
as most forms of industrial progress impacts upon use of land, energy
consumption and other direct or indirect forms of physical impacts are
critical.  In addition the panoramic environment, whether it is
artificial or natural, it is one of the most fundamental parts of the
tourism productivity. However, as soon as the tourist travel to a
destination, the environment can change inevitably or even being
modified either. However, tourists have also a considerable impact on
the wildlife and their wastes constitute a vital concern of polluting
water and the atmosphere, particularly at some coastal areas and
mountains. In order to consider the physical impact of tourism in Paris,
it is important to establish its effects on the natural environment
especially, an immediate change in floral and faunal composition,
natural resources, pollution and erosion. In the other hand, the built
environment is also impacted such as the urban environment, visual
impact, car park, litter, infrastructure and a competitive restoration.
In fact, there is a wide range of environmental impact which can be used
or being expanded to allow a careful study or to facilitate future
development planning used for resources. Ryan et al (2005)

In the other hand, the tourist must be fully aware of what makes
Paris worth visiting, regarding its culture, lifestyle, panoramic views
such as Eiffel tower and the public area, while rude behaviour such as
pickpocket and threat rising from local people may result the tourist to
change their mind or cancel their visit. Given that, basic motivations
for tourist are highly concerned with cultural and social experiences,
such as meeting new people and visiting different cultural sites, from
that point the tourism can have positive impacts on travellers. Also a
large number of people within the can benefit from the social and the
cultural impacts of tourism in so many ways, which means they can take
advantage by mixing people from diverse culture, with different kind of
lifestyle and also from their linguistic different backgrounds. In the
other word, the tourism can improve the quality of human life especially
to the local residents, by offering and sharing with them the programme
of social and cultural events. The culture of Paris is today marked by
socio-regional and cultural aspect of different tendencies, which
consists of beliefs and values learned through the socialisation process
and interactions between member of the society and also the personal
influences such as languages and religions. However, the behaviour of
tourist in Paris may appear irrational within the space of a few minute.
This has become an obligation to know how to react to the new
priorities of tourist and this involves re-thinking the role of
management, strategy, organization and marketing.

In conclusion, the tourism industry and the environmental
preservation have, to improve the strategies with an integral part of
many development programmes, which will be treated with much respect
than it was during the beginning of this century. In fact, the
environmental indicators in Paris should not be limited to what should
be done, but instead what action people should take just in case.
However, the physical plan and the visual aspects can take place
together, with a strict measures created to protect the economic benefit
of tourism in line with environmental policy. Although this stage
required the government of most countries worldwide, to implement the
project that can be monitored in terms of its future environmental
impact and the integration of its economy.

Likewise, the environmental and the economic impacts is essential if
tourism strategies and choices of the destination are   well informed
and steps taken, to prevent tourism development exceeding the capacity
of the destination. Furthermore, not all of Paris’s areas are
attractive, due to their bad reputation, which constitute a slight loss
to the local council. Nonetheless, the tourism will be much more
influenced by a number of tourists disappointed by their experience and
also the changing world situation or the impacts of globalisation. Along
with these changes, are other influences which can have moderate
impacts or considerable impacts and also possible detrimental effects to
people such as the soil, water, air, peace and quiet, landscapes,
cultural sites and many more. Therefore, as long as the tourism grows in
Paris, much complex system and transport network will expand
dramatically, which bring the rejection of the tourism by the local
citizen and protecting the environment can give a shape to tourism.
Cooper et al (2005)


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